ORANGI PILOT PROJECT
RESEARCH AND TRAINING INSTITUTE (OPP-RTI)
FLOODS - RELIEF AND REHABILITATION AND THE EVOLVING VILLAGE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
In the last week of July’10 devastating floods, due to heavy rains (the likes last recorded in Pakistan in 1928), damaged thousands of villages and many towns located mostly up to 4-15 kms both sides of the River Indus. The river spans north to south across Pakistan. More then 1,600 people were killed and more then 20 million affected.
Ripe crops of cotton, rice and sugarcane were destroyed (more then 17 million acres of agricultural land were submerged in water). Houses were washed away. The livestock i.e. cows, goats, sheep, camels, donkeys, horses and buffaloes drowned, fish and poultry farms were wiped out. People took shelter mostly on embankments and highways, in the open. Some reached nearby towns and cities, located at safe distances.
Immediate needs of food were taken care of, mostly, by the people from the nearby villages/towns that were unaffected. Government, local organizations, UN and other international agencies food supplies later reached the affectees. Medical camps, in some areas, continue to be managed by active members of the community, NGOs, and other volunteers, together with the Govt.
By Aug’11 unprecedented rains flooded many districts in the South East of Sindh, mostly those areas that were unaffected in the last floods. Extensive damage was caused mostly by a defective drain known as the “left bank out fall drain”. It was designed to drain saline water from upper Sindh down to the sea, but due to the defective outfall there is always back flow (upto 40 km inland), which was made worse due to the heavy rains. Partner NGOs were involved in rescue and relief efforts – support of medicines for the medical camps was initiated by OPP-RTI and OPP-OCT. Support for shelter, handpumps and schools continues.
OPP-RTI and OPP-OCT partners in many places mostly in South Punjab, Sindh and lately in Balochistan continue to provide the needed rehabilitation services in the respective areas. Relief camps providing food, medicines and where possible shelter, were earlier managed in the affected villages, towns and cities across the country. As the water receded and people returned to their villages, partners are now involved in rehabilitation i.e support for roofing for a room/house, provision of hand pumps and managing health centers/mobile medical camps reaching the villages. Support for shelter, handpumps and setting up of schools in the villages continues.By Nov’10 seeds and fertilizers were made available (by OPP-OCT) as a one time support, presently support for livestock continues.
Support being extended
Medicines for medical camps and provision of mosquito nets:
OPP-RTI and OPP-OCT provided support, for medicines, to twenty eight partner/organisations in the affected areas . Homeless International, ACHR and Misereor support for medicines have been very valuable. In addition after the Aug’11 floods Getz Pharma’s support for medicines and mosquito nets and Pfizer’s support of discounted medicines has been very valuable. In South Punjab in Jampur, Rajanpur, Kot Addu, Layyah and D.G Khan, in Sindh in Ghotki, Saeedabad, Khairpur, Kandiaro, Hyderabad, Shikarpur, Kashmore, Tando Md. Khan, Kunri, Hala, Umerkot, Badin, Shahdadpur, Sinjhoro, Pretamabad, Sakrand and Thatta and in Balochistan in Jafferabad support for medicines was provided. More then 1,05,467 patients were treated during the period Oct 2010 to Sept 2011.
Medical camps /centres were managed by ten partners. With one medical camp by one partner, on average, treating upto 100 patients a day – some partners managed medical camps daily, while others on average 2-3 days a week - with about 1,000 patients were treated in a month. Doctors/medical technicians and also some medicines were arranged by the partners, providing voluntary services.
Provision of mosquito nets: To save guard against malaria which is a frequent accurance in the affected villages, since Dec’11 mosquito nets are being provided (2 of single size or 1 double and 1 single/family as needed). Total 16,650 families have been supported.
Roofing for shelter:
By Oct’10 as the water receeded people settled back in their damaged villages . Support for shelter i.e roofing components for a room of 14’x15’/house (costing upto Rs. 14,000/-) and rubble removal kits (for use by 6-10 houses costing upto Rs. 4,500/-) was initiated . Support has also been extended to the areas damaged in the floods of Aug’11. Support has been planned to be extended to upto 30,000 houses . In villages near 2 cities and 32 towns thru 44 partner organisations work is in progress (South Punjab – IDSP in Layyah, GDO in (Karor Lal Eason) Layyah, GDO in D.G.Khan and TF and Qaswa, NSF,OHD in Jampur, PWF in Harand , Rajanpur, AZM in Jhang, IHP in Multan, Sindh – HWA and Alakh in Ghotki, MES, SDPP in Khairpur-Kingri and Gambat, GSF in Sobhodero, IRADO in Mithiani and Naushehro Feroz, ICDO in Moro, AMRDO in Saeedabad, SHED in Matiari, SRDO in Shahdadpur, BDF in Dadu, VWS in Daulatpur, SEAD/ WDO and HDWA, NWO in Badin, Sehkar in Barhoon, MDF and CDIP, Catholic Church in Tando Allayar and HF and ISC in Thatta and Hyderabad, DARD in Khipro, WWO in Sakrand, SWDSO in Sanghar, SDF, RAWDO in Sinjhoro, SRSP in Jati Sujawal, SRPO, MEHWA in Mirpur Khas, SRDO in Samaro – Umerkot, Balochistan-IEWS & WWO in Jafferabad, URC in Awaran, Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa (KPK) – BDO in Shangla).
People are completing mud walls/pillars. Roofing over a room is in progress, for 29,349 houses spread over 2,146 villages, this work is complete,950 houses in 45 villages is in progress for others work has begin. The roofing components for Punjab/Sindh are 2 girders, 12-16 bamboo/wooden battens, reed matting, plastic sheeting and rope.
In most cases women have completed the mud walls/pillars and plaster with men fixing the roofing components. In Punjab/Sindh two types of roofs have been supported as per the tradition of the areas 1) the slope roof ,needing 1 girder (16’-17’) and 18-20 bamboos (20’ each) and 2) the flat roof, needing 2 girders (16’-17’) and 12-16 bamboos (16’-20’). In some cases houses have been able to retrieve girders or bamboos from the rubble of their houses, so have voluntarily taken only the needed roofing components. Therefore more houses have been supported with roofing over a room/house. Effort has been made to support maximum number of houses. Partners have organized village committees in each village for joint survey, selection and management of work. Documentation and accounts have been meticulously maintained. Audit of the Misereor phase-I, II, III, IV and V projects for roofing for 24,291 houses were completed. For the 5 th phase (7,600 houses) support with in batches of 50 shelters to each partner is organized. For the 5 th phase of shelter market rates have been reviewed for all partners. Rates are found to be on downward side as the demand for these materials has decreased since 2010-11 floods. The average cost of 14’x15’ size room is now Rs. 12,500 Misereor has been very kind to approve the 5 th phase of support for the provision of 7,600 more shelters, which is continuing.
Misereor, ACHR and HI – MRDF’s timely support for the roofing and hand pumps has been very valuable.
Due to the unprecedented rains in Sindh spanning Aug-Sept’11 in some places the supported shelter was damaged. Mostly mud walls developed cracks and in parts these were washed away. An assessment by Dec’11 showed that 8% houses were damaged. The roofing in most cases remained intact with additional supports/pillars. In some cases people dismantled the roof, and later used it in rebuilding. Repairs and reconstruction have been undertaken. An aspect that kept the houses safe was the raising of the floor level upto a hieght of about 3 feet, this has since become an essential for the program.
In May’12 facilitated by Misereor, a member of the French organization Caraterre visited the site and observed the rehabilitation program specially the housing support. Valuable observations and advice were 1) documentation of people’s good practices/techniques of construction, to facilitate extension 2) considering improvement in the village as a whole, for example earth filling of ditches for keeping foundations secure from water, suggesting proper locations for handpmps - using waste water and as needed assisting in the layout of houses 3) continuing the support for housing, evolving as a housing support/village upgrading program. The visit has provided OPP-RTI a useful and exciting direction for strengthening work. Good practices are being documented while extension of techniques continues.
As people settled in their villages, by Dec’10 support for replacement/repair of handpumps (costing about Rs.3,000-7,000) was undertaken. One handpump is needed for about 6-10 houses. Provision of 516 new handpumps and repairs of 23 are complete, spread over 254 villages in Jampur, DG Khan, Layyah, Kingri, Sobhodero, Ghotki, Daulatpur, Moro, Saeedabad, Badin, Matiari, Jafferabad, Sanghar, Hyderabad, Sinjhoro, Sakrand, Harrand, Rajanpur, Khairpur and Catholic Church (Tando Allahyar),Mirpurkhas. Provision of more handpumps is planned thru partners. In many places people have managed to repair existing handpumps as well as install new ones on self help while many other agencies/NGOs have also provided support
Schools in villages:
Before the floods schools and medical facilities were non existent in most of the villages. Effort is being made to set up schools in the villages. Local educated youths are being identified, motivated and facilitated to start a school. In 9 places, Layyah, Khairpur - Kingri, Ghotki, Moro, Sobhodero, Badin, Hyderabad, New Saeedabad and Jampur total 25 small schools are functional. Report of 25 schools shows that 1,156 children arebeing educated. For the schools support for roofing over a room of 16’x20’ and a years stipend for the teacher is being extended. In two schools earlier supported (one each in Ghotki and Khairpur) community has started paying a stipend to the teacher. Course books, floor matting and black boards have been arranged by the partners. Thousand copies of two course books (of the Sindh text book board), that are unavailable in the market, were earlier acquired from the printers, as needed these are being provided to partners. Schools as centers for health/hygiene practise and training are being planned (with a toilet and a sewage disposal system), water filtration/storage and a washing space with soap. For sewage treatment and disposal, demonstration of EM-STU began in late 2012, EM-STU’s have been constructed in 1) village Paryalo Chawro in Hyderabad managed by partner HF 2) village Pir Buksh Mugheri in Badin managed by WDA and 3) village Dost Mohammad Chacher in Ghotki managed by partner HWA Foundation. Basti Qadir in Keror Lal Eason, Layyah managed by partner GDO. OPP-RTI provided technical support and material, community contribution is in labour, mud wall of toilet and its O&M.
Village Development Program:
The related Village Development Program has been initiated.Beginning with training of partner youths on mapping, the program is planned (some aspects now initiated) to support the communities in infrastructure (water, sanitation and drainage), amenities (health / education) and livelihood (livestock and agriculture) while the women saving groups is an essential element of strength. The program is an opportunity to linkup with the villages where shelter provision has been supported. Youths of 20 partner organizations (HWA-Ghotki, WDO-Badin, AMRDO – Saeedabad, HF - Hyderabad BDF – Dadu, IRADO-Naushera Feroz, GDO-D.G.Khan and TF- Jampur, IDSP-Layyah, Allakh-Ghotki, ICDO-Moro, SEAD-Badin, SHED-Matiari, MES-Khairpur, Sehkar- Barhoon, GDO – Karor Lalasen Layyah, GSF – Khairpur, VWS - Daulatpur), QDO – Jampur, IEWS-Jafferabad with the first stage training have initiated mapping of villages. Youths of 2 more partner organizations trained, are being followed up/guided last period. Eleven partner organizations (GDO,GDO (K), IDSP, SRDO, IRADO, AMRDO, BDF, SWDSO, RAWDO, NSF and PWF) have initiated the women’s savings groups in 140 villages. Partner OCT has provided support for livestock (interest free loans for the provision of goats) to 1,050 members of the saving groups.
Partners, AMRDO, IRADO and BASIC have been identified to play a lead role.