Perween Rahman



A survey of 334 katchi abadis










Existing situation, problems and solutions related

to sewage disposal, water supply, health and education




A survey of 334 katchi abadis


Existing situation, problems and solutions related

to sewage disposal, water supply, health and education







Perween Rahman











1. Introduction                                                                            5

2. Sewage disposal                                                                     7

3. Water supply                                                                        13

4. Health                                                                                  16

5. Education                                                                             17


1. Katchi abadis surveyed till June 2002                                       5

2. Existing sewerage system:

people and government's investment                                            7

3. Existing water lines:

people and government's investment                                           13

4. Existing Clinics                                                                  

5.Existing Schools



Appendix-1. Sample of the survey/documentation map               19

Appendix-2. Karachi map showing location of                            20

                     katchi abadis surveyed

Appendix-3. List of katchi abadis surveyed                            





Copyright (c) Orangi Pilot Project-Research and Training Institute 2004

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The Orangi Pilot Project-Research & Training Institute (OPP-RTI) has been mapping and documenting sanitation systems in the katchi abadis1 of Orangi since 1984. This was being done as part of its low-cost sanitation program. However, in 1994, while working outside Orangi in the other katchi abadis of Karachi, it was observed that there was a great deal of work being done on a self-help basis by the communities living in settlements. OPP-RTI realized that there was a need to document this work also in order to (a) understand the extent of community initiatives being undertaken as a whole; (b) to avoid duplication of work being done by the government; (c) to enable people to realize the extent of their own work, and thus strengthen their organizations and capability; (d) to be able to inform the government of the ground reality so that its policies could be formulated to complement the work already undertaken by the people.

OPP-RTI also decided that apart from sewerage it would also document water supply systems, clinics and schools that were set up by these communities as these were important initiatives supporting the water, health and education needs of the people.

The documentation surveys of katchi abadis of Karachi have therefore been going on since 1994. These surveys have been undertaken by trained youths from the settlements who are part of the OPP-RTI youth training program.


Table 1

Katchi abadis surveyed till June 2002

Total number of katchi abadis:          539

Total number surveyed:   334    (62%)

Houses 2, 24, 299      
Lanes 19,463

The survey of the 334 katchi abadis shows the extent of the peoples work. Out of a total of 19,463 lanes, comprising 2, 24,299 houses, sewerage lines have been constructed on a self-help basis in 10,131 lanes (that is, 62 per cent of the total lanes that have sewerage systems) and water lines have been laid in 6,991 lanes (that is, 50 percent of the total lanes that have water lines).

The people have made a total investment of Rs 334.48 million in lane sewers, water lines, and in some secondary sewers and secondary water lines. Wherever there is sewage disposal (that is, a natural nala, or a government main sewer or drain) and a water main, the people organize, collect money and lay neighborhood level sewers and water lines. The maintenance of these systems is also then organized by the people on a self- help basis. While the government has worked on some lane sewers and water lines (i.e,. 38 per cent and 50 per cent respectively) most of its work has been on main sewers, main drains and water mains.





Katchi Abadis of Karachi: A survey of 334 katchi abadis

A total of 1,041clinics and 773 schools have been set up by the people as against 12 government clinics and 143 government schools.

Work in the settlements continues with new developments, expansion and changes in existing facilities, which in fact is a phenomenon of urbanization. People aspire for higher standards of living through better civic facilities. When government agencies do not respond, the residents organize to solve the problems themselves.2

Government partnership with the communities through component-sharing in sewage disposal and water supply distribution is evident on the ground. Component-sharing means that the people construct neighbourhood level sewerage

and water lines on a self help basis while the government complements it by constructing the main sewerage lines and drains as well as the water mains. The case is similar in the health and education sectors. Clinics and schools at the neighbourhood level are set up by the residents while hospitals, colleges and universities remain the responsibility of the government. This partnership on the ground needs to be recognized.

Based on the documentation surveys of 334 katchi abadis and the work of OPP-RTI a conceptual plan for development was prepared which is being presented in this monograph. Statistics, problems and solutions related to each sector are illustrated. The Katchi Abadis surveyed till June 2002, have been included in this monograph.

1-These are poor peoples settlements. Since the early 1970s, katchi abadis all over Pakistan have been recognized by the governmentt.

2-Another example of people's cooperative action is in the lobbying for land title. Out of a total of 539 katchi abadis in Karachi, 72 per cent are notified (i.e., accepted by the government. This means that the process of provision of land title has been approved so the settlement cannot be evicted). Approximately, 29 per cent residents have been provided with land titles. The source for this information is the Sindh Katchi Abadi Authority (SKAA) progress report of June 2003.







Katchi Abadis of Karachi: A survey of 334 katchi abadis

For very obvious reasons sanitation is a major concern for the people in any community or settlement. Without proper sewage disposal facilities health, income, socializing, all are impaired. So one of the efforts of the people when seeking to improve their settlements is to develop a good, workable sewage disposal system.

The survey has revealed that people are willing to make major investments to this end, by laying lane sewers and in some cases secondary sewers as well. The government too has laid lane sewers but at a cost which is five times higher than that of the work done by the people.

The criteria for laying lane sewers is the presence of some form of a disposal system. Presently this is mostly in the form of natural nalas/drains. In places the government has undertaken the construction of large secondary sewers/main drains. These often discharge into the city's main natural nalas/drains just as in the rest of the city

areas. Development of these natural nalas/drains into trunk mains and provision of treatment plants where the nalas join the sea remains, as in the case of the large secondary sewers, an important government task

The table below outlines the work done and investments involved.

When extrapolating the work done by the people to what it would be if the same had been undertaken by the government; if the entire work had been done by the government; and lastly if the work had been carried out through foreign aid; the results are interesting, and indeed very revealing:

People's work is worth Rs 439 million, ( if work was done by government)

Total work is worth Rs 970 million (if work was done only by government)

Total work is worth Rs 4 billion (if work was done through foreign aid)

Table 2

Existing Sewerage System: people and government investment.


Total Lanes
Lane sewers laid by:
Main/Sec sewer laid by
Main drain's laid by Govt
Investment(Rs in million) by:
179.95mostly on lane sewers
531.32 mostly on mains



The problem lies in:

1-Inadequate main disposals which are mostly government

constructed drains / main sewers, and the natural nalas.

The trouble with these are:

.The government drains are open and silted up and so

they tend to overflow.

.The government main sewers are not maintained so

they often choke up

.The natural nalas are not channelized so they are

often silted up and encroached upon.



The work carried out by the people: A pictorial rendition

The initial point of mobilization


Katchi Abadis of Karachi: A survey of 334 katchi abadis

The solution is :

1-Development and upgrading of existing disposals by:

.Desilting, repairing and covering main drains.

.Constructing, repairing and maintaining main sewers.

.Channelizing the natural nalas into covered drains.

2-Partnership between people and government. Acceptance of the fact that people are financing, constructing and maintaining lane sewers as well as small secondary sewers.

3-Mapping and documentation of existing systems


Overflowing sewage in the lane:
Communities organize : Quest for a better disposal system
Katchi Abadis of Karachi: A survey of 334 katchi abadis

Peoples' cooperative action

Construction of underground lane sewers everywhere.
Expanding to financing and constructing even secondary sewers

The duty of ownership:

The residents undertake to maintain and protect their environment
The sewers are financed, constructed, and maintained by the residents.

The result: clean lanes

The resident's delight:

A healthy environment for the children

Katchi Abadis of Karachi: A survey of 334 katchi abadis

Work carried out by the Government to complement people's work: component sharing

Work on main sewers, drains, and natural drainage channels for disposal for lanes and secondary sewers
Development of natural drainage channels.
Katchi Abadis of Karachi: A survey of 334 katchi abadis
Problems with sewage disposal
Inadequate disposal: choked Government sewers
Government main drains are open and silted up
Natural open drainage channels: silted over and encroached upon

Government efforts are needed to:

Construct, maintain, repair main sewers/ trunks
Desilt and cover existing main drains
Develop natural drainage channels into covered drains
Katchi Abadis of Karachi: A survey of 334 katchi abadis
Katchi Abadis of Karachi: A survey of 334 katchi abadis

When the Government has developed main disposals the results are picture perfect

Haryana Colony Drainage Channel


Manzoor Colony Drainage Channel






Katchi Abadis of Karachi: A survey of 334 katchi abadis

Supply of potable water is a major priority in the lives of the people. The government water supply infrastructure does not have the capacity to supply water equitably to the upper, lower and middle-income areas. The people are, therefore, compelled to find their own means to get their rightful share of available water which means investing in the water supply infrastructure.

The survey shows that in many settlements where government water mains exist, people have on their own initiative laid the distribution lines— mostly the lane water lines. However the major problem in water supply is the provision of water itself. In many cases water lines exist but there is no water. In many places people have resorted to boring for subsoil water but the water from these is brackish, and can be used only in the toilet or for cleaning purposes. Water for drinking and cooking is purchased from private tankers, costing an average of Rs400 to 500 per month per house. People are willing to pay the government for the

supply of water because at present they are paying more for the informal connections and supply. Development of the source of water and construction of supply mains has to be the government's responsibility. The people can themselves take care of the distribution.

The table below shows the situation as it stands.

As in the case of sewage disposal, extrapolation to government and foreign aid reveals interesting figures. The worth shown, however, is minimum, as the cost to the people in obtaining water connections and government cost of setting up pumping stations could not be included.

People's work is worth Rs 435.18 million, (if work was done by the government)

Total work in worth Rs 630.94 million ( if work was done only by government)

Total work is worth Rs 2.57 billion ( if work was done through foreign aid).

Total Lanes
Lane water lines laid by:
Main/Sec lines laid by
Investment (Rs in million) by:
154.53 mostly on lane sewers
195.76 mostly on mains

Table 3

Existing water lines: people and government's investment

Katchi Abadis of Karachi: A survey of 334 katchi abadis

The problem lies in:

1-The shortage or, at times, lack of water which is primarily due to:

-Unequal distribution

-Leakages in and from water mains

-Lack of maps documenting the existing system leading to:

i-a lack of transparency in management; and

ii-adhoc development



The solution lies in:

-Mapping and documentation of the existing system.

-Managing quota and metered supply to settlements, thus ensuring equitable provision of water.

-Plugging of leakages in water mains (both technical leakages and theft).

-Construction of new mains.

-Acceptance of the fact that people do finance, construct and maintain lane and secondary water lines.

The water situation: a pictorial rendition

Katchi Abadis of Karachi: A survey of 334 katchi abadis

Despite the work done by the Government and the people in laying water lines, the problem of the supply of water remains.

Government main water lines are laid in many settlements
People lay water lines in the lanes
Katchi Abadis of Karachi: A survey of 334 katchi abadis


Health concerns of children and adults are always tackled by the people. No one waits for the government to build hospitals or clinics when a child is sick, or a mother is about to give birth, or the head of the family cannot work due to ill health.

Private health clinics everywhere provide health services to the people. These are mostly clinics set up by health practitioners where common ailments are treated.

Vaccination and family planning services are increasingly in demand. Most clinics face problems in accessing both.

Government clinics are almost non-existent in the settlements, constituting only 12 (1.14 percent) as compared to 1,041 (98.86 percent) private clinics.

The table below shows the extent the people have managed medical facilities.

1-Supporting existing private   clinics by:

-supplying vaccines and family planning components on a sustainable basis.

-providing training to Traditional Birth Attendants, Vaccinators, Lady Health Visitors and Family Planning Attendants.

2-Increasing access to hospitals by upgrading existing ones

3-Building of new hospitals

The solution lies in:

Healthcare in communities: a pictorial rendition

Clinics set up by people provide healthcare to communities

A dai's (traditional birth attendents) training session in progress

Table 4 :

Existing Clinics


The problems are:

1. Lack of vaccines and family planning supplies in the clinics.

2. Lack of trained health personnel in the clinics.

3. Lack of access to hospitals.







Katchi Abadis of Karachi: A survey of 334 katchi abadis


This is another sector in which peoples work has to be recognized. The people are aware of the importance of education and so have set up their own schools. These schools far exceed the number of those set up by the government.

Table 5 :
Existing School

Educational facilities in communities:

a pictorial rendition

Schools set up by people are every where
A school set up by resident in a katchi abadi
The need is to support these schools with

The schools set up by the people are formal schools, both at the primary and secondary levels and are run by individuals, living in the areas. The fees charged average Rs 25 to Rs 150/- per student, per month, and the rate increases as the classes go higher.

The government schools are free, but people prefer to pay fees and send their children to private schools, where they contend the education is better.

Due to affordable schooling in the settlements, students have easy access to education upto the tenth grade. However, access to higher education is difficult because of the limited number of seats in government colleges and universities while private institutions are too costly.

Young people's lack of access to higher education has grave socio-economic consequences.

Physical upgradation
Teachers training

The problem is:

1.Lack of access of private schools to teachers training.

2.Lack of credit facilities/grants for physical up-gradation of private schools.

3.Lack of access to colleges/universities and vocational institutes.

The solution is:

1. To support existing private schools through:

- Teachers training

- Investment in physical up-gradation

2.Increase in capacity of government colleges/universities and vocational centres to ensure access to a greater number of students and

3.Setting up of more government's institutions for higher education

Katchi Abadis of Karachi: A survey of 334 katchi abadis


SAMPLE OF THE SURVEY/DOCUMENTATION MAPS. Similar maps of 334 K.A's are available.



Katchi Abadis of Karachi: A survey of 334 katchi abadis



The Katchi Abadis are located with reference to the numbers in the list on proceeding page.


Katchi Abadis of Karachi: A survey of 334 katchi abadis
Katchi Abadis of Karachi: A survey of 334 katchi abadis


List of katchi abadis surveyed

1 Abbasi Nagar Part-1

2 Abdul Ghafoor Gourgage

3 Abdul Ghafoor village

4 Abdullah village

5 Abuzer Colony

6 Adam Hangora Goth

7 Afridi Colony

8 Akbar Colony

9 Akhtar Colony

10 Ali Basti

11 Ali Mohammad Goth

12 Ali Mohammad village

13 Al-Mustafa Colony

14 Al-Zia Colony

15 Anjuman-e-Ittehad Colony

16 Arafat Town

17 Ashraf Colony

18 Ashraf Colony -2

19 Ashrafabad

20 Asif Colony

21 Awami Colony

22 Ayub Goth

23 Azim Khan Goth

24 Azimabad No.1

25 Azimabad No.2

26 Baloch Para

27 Baloch Colony

28 Baloch Goth

29 Barija village

30 Barsati Shed

31 Bawani Chali - 1

32 Bawani Chali - 2

33 Bawani Chali - 3

34 Behar Colony

35 Bhittai Colony

36 Bhutto Nagar

37 Bilal Colony

38 Bilal Colony

39 Bilal Shah Noorani Goth

40 Brohi Mohallah

41 Bund Gali

42 Burmi & Sharif Colony

43 Central Muslimabad

44 Chakara Goth Chakra Colony & Noorani Basti

45 Chouta Maidan

46 Christian Town

47 Chitagong Colony

48 Choona Depo

49 Dara Nagar

50 Darwaish Colony

51 Dawood Chali Colony

52 Doha Village

53 Ejaz Colony

54 Essa Goth

55 Essa Nagri

56 Essa Village

57 Farooqabad

58 Farooq-e-Azam Colony

59 Ferozabad

60 Firdous Chali Colony

61 Firdous Colony

62 Future Colony - 1

63 Future Colony - 2

64 Gabol Town

65 Gazderabad

66 Generalabad

67 Gharib Nawaz Colony

68 Gharib Nawaz Colony

69 Gharibabad

70 Ghousia Colony

71 Ghousia Noorani Pahari Basti

72 Ghulam Hussain Hidayatullah Colony

73 Ghulam Mohammad village

74 Gilgit Colony

75 Goharabad

76 Golimar Bazar

77 Gujar nala

78 Gul Mohammad village

79 Gulshan-e-Mustafa Colony

80 Gunj Shakar Colony

81 Hadi Mill

82 Haider Colony

83 Haji Mureed Goth

84 Haji Perie village

85 Haroonabad

86 Haroonabad - 2

Katchi Abadis of Karachi: A survey of 334 katchi abadis

87 Hasan Aulia village

88 Hashim Goth

89 Hasrat Mohani Colony

90 Hazara Colony

91 Hijrat Colony

92 Hill Area

93 Hundred Quarter

94 Islamia Colony

95 Islamia Colony No. 2

96 Jalalabad

97 Jamal Goth

98 Jamali Colony

99 Jamhoria Colony

100 Jauhar Colony

101 Jauhar Street

102 Jehangirabad

103 Jinjan Goth

104 Jinnah Colony

105 Jadgal Village

106 Junejo Town

107 Kachi Para

108 Kashmir Colony

109 Kauser Niazi Colony

110 Khalidabad

111 Khamosh Colony

112 Khandoo Goth

113 Khawaja Ajmair Nagri

114 Khawaja Gharib Nawaz Colony

115 Khuldabad 1

116 Khuldabad 2

117 Khuldabad 3

118 Khyber Colony

119 Kohat Colony

120 Liaquat Basti

121 M.P.R. Colony

122 Madina Colony, Gulshan

123 Madina Colony, Landhi

124 Madina Colony

125 Madina Market

126 Makhdoom Colony

127 Malik Anwar Goth

128 Malir Shed-2

129 Manzoor Colony

130 Mariumabad

131 Maseeh Colony

132 Masoom Shah Colony

133 Mecca Colony

134 Mehran Colony

135 Mehtab Colony

136 Mansehra Colony

137 Miskeenabad

138 Mistri Khan Village

139 Moosa Colony

140 Muhammad Ali Colony

141 Muhammad Ali Colony

142 Muhammad Hussain Goth

143 Muhammad Nagar

144 Muhammadabad

145 Mujahid Colony

146 Mujahid Colony (Nazimabad)

147 Millat Nagar

148 Muslim Colony

149 Muslim Rajput Colony

150 Muslimabad

151 Muslimabad

152 Muslimabad `D' Area

153 Mussarat Colony

154 Mustafa Taj Colony

155 Mustafa Colony

156 Naghman Goth

157 Natal Colony

158 Naubehar Colony

159 Nazimabad

160 New Muslimabad

161 Nishtarabad

162 Noor Muhammad village

163 Noorani Basti

* Orangi: 113 settlements are included

in the end

164 Pahar Gunj

165 Pak People Colony

166 Pasban Mohallah

167 Pathan Colony - 1/2

168 Pathan Colony -3

169 Pathan Colony 4/5

170 Pehlwan Goth

171 Pirabad

172 Punjabi Para

Katchi Abadis of Karachi: A survey of 334 katchi abadis

173 Punjabi Para (Malir)

174 Qabli Colony

175 Qadeemi Mohallah

176 Qadria Colony

177 Qasimabad

178 Quaidabad

179 Quaid-e-Azam Colony

180 Rajput Colony

181 Rehmanabad

182 Rehmatia Colony

183 Reti Line

184 Rexer Colony 1/2

185 Roodad Nagar (Nazimabad)

186 Roshan Shah Sikri Colony

187 Roshanabad

188 Sabirah Goth

189 Salai Para

190 Saleh Muhammad village

191 Sarfraz Colony

192 Sarhad Ittehad Colony & Dhobi Ghat

193 Sadiqabad

194 Shad Rasool Colony

195 Shafiq Colony

196 Shah Dost village

197 Shah Jahanabad - 2

198 Shah Khalid Colony

199 Shah Khalid Colony

200 Shahjehanabad-1

201 Sherpao Colony

202 Sherabad

203 Siraj Colony

204 Sultanabad 1/2

205 Tekri Colony

206 Tayababad

207 U.P. Mohajreen Colony

208 Umar Baloch Goth

209 Umer Colony

210 Usman Ghani Colony

211 Usmanabad

212 Usmania Colony

213 Usmania Mohajir Colony

214 Vagri Village

215 Waheedabad

216 Waliyatabad

217 Welfare Colony

218 Yasin Zubair Colony

219 Zahidabad

220 Zia Colony

221 Ziaul Haq Colony

222 - 334 Orangi Katchi Abadis: Total




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A shortage of water leading to long queues at supply points which are mostly the KWSB's pumping stations
People also have to purchase water from private tanker suppliers